Nanosciences and nanotechnologies are at the crossroads of several scientific disciplines such as electronics, mechanics, chemistry, optics, biology that manipulate objects of a size of the nanometer order.
Definition of nanotechnology
Nanosciences and nanotechnologies (NST) can be defined as all studies and methods for manufacturing structures, devices, and hardware systems across the nanometer (NM). In this context, nanosciences are the study of the phenomena and manipulation of the material at atomic, molecular, and macromolecular scales, where the properties (Physico-chemical) differ significantly from those obtained on a larger scale. Nanotechnologies, meanwhile, are the design, characterization, production, and application of structures, devices, and systems by form control and size at a nanometric scale; despite the relative simplicity and precision of these definitions, NST presents several acceptances related to the transversal nature of this young discipline.
The discovery of nanotechnology
The ideas and concepts consisting of nanotechnology and technologia began before its use a long time ago. It is when the physicist Richard Faineman proposed at the American Mission Society's meeting at the California Institute of Technology on December 19 in 1959, a topic titled "there is plenty of room at the bottom." Faineman has described a process in which scientists can control and influence individual atoms and molecules after years of discovering Ultraprecision machining. Professor Nurio Tanjucchi has established the term nanotechnology, and until 1981, nanotechnology began with the development of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope, which allows to see tiny individual atoms.
Nanotechnology, how does it work?
Nanosciences intentionally manufacture nanomaterials for research and production purposes. They nevertheless present health risks.
The manufacture of nanoparticles:
There are several types of nanoparticles:
. Natural nanoparticles like viruses,
. Nanoparticles that are by-products of production processes resulting from the exhaust gas,
. Nanoparticles intentionally manufactured in the context of nanotechnologies.
Nanosciences manufacture artificial nanoparticles in many ways:
. By gradually reducing particles,
. By building them atom by atom,
. By self-work.
Nanotechnology what is it for?
Nanotechnologies apply to a variety of materials as long as they are nanometric in size.
Aviation and aeronautics:
Nanosciences have the advantage of manufacturing stronger and lighter parts, facilitating movement in the air or even exiting the atmosphere.
Medicine and health
Nanobiology and nanomedicine make fighting cancer easier, making smart tissues with detectors to speed up the healing process, more effective dressings, and more. They also help improve medical imaging.
Biosciences and Pharma
Around biology, pharmaceutical laboratories, and biotechnology. This field can be qualified as that of nanobiology.
Indirectly, nanotechnologies can improve water filtering, agricultural production, computer screens, glasses, etc.
Nanosciences are transforming batteries, sensors, security systems, etc.
Advantages and disadvantages of nanotechnology
Nanotechnology is helping to dramatically improve, if not revolutionize, many technological and industrial sectors: information technology, homeland security, medicine, transport, energy, food security, and environmental sciences, among others. Below is an example of the growing list of benefits of nanotechnology.
Many of the benefits of nanotechnology depend on the fact that it is possible to adapt the structures of materials at a very small scale to achieve specific properties, which greatly expands the toolbox of materials science. Nanotechnology can make materials stronger, lighter, more durable, more responsive, more sieve-like, or better electrical conductors, among other characteristics. There are many everyday commercial products on the market today and in daily use that relies on nanoscale materials and processes:
- Nanoscale additives or fabric surface treatments can provide a slight deflection of ballistic energy in bulletproof vests or help them resist wrinkles, stains, and bacterial growth.
- Nanoscale transparent films on eyeglasses, computer and camera screens, windows, and other surfaces can make them impervious to water and residue, anti-reflective, self-cleaning, resistant to ultraviolet or infrared light, anti-fog, antimicrobial, scratch-resistant, or electrically conductive.
- Nanoscale materials are beginning to enable the manufacture of washable and durable "smart fabrics" equipped with flexible nanoscale sensors and electronics capable of monitoring health, harnessing solar energy, and recover energy through movement.
- Lightweighting cars, trucks, airplanes, ships, and spacecraft could result in significant fuel savings. Nanoscale additives in polymer composite materials are used in baseball bats, tennis racquets, bicycles, motorcycle helmets, auto parts, luggage, and power tool cases, making them light, rigid, durable, and resistant. In addition, sheets of carbon nanotubes are now being produced for use in next-generation aerial vehicles. For example, the combination of lightness and conductivity makes them ideal for electromagnetic shielding and thermal management applications.
- Nanobioengineering of enzymes aims to convert cellulose from wood chips, corn stalks, unfertilized perennial grasses, etc., in ethanol as fuel. Cellulosic nanomaterials have demonstrated potential applications in a wide range of industrial sectors, including electronics, construction, packaging, food, energy, healthcare, automotive, and defense. In addition, cellulosic nanomaterials are expected to be less expensive than many other nanomaterials and, among other characteristics, have an impressive strength-to-weight ratio.
- Nanotechnology has greatly contributed to major advances in computing and electronics, leading to faster, smaller, and more portable systems that can handle and store ever-increasing amounts of information.
- Nanotechnology is finding applications in traditional energy sources and dramatically improving alternative energy approaches to help meet the growing global demand for energy. Therefore, many scientists are looking for ways to develop clean, affordable, and renewable sources of energy and other ways to reduce energy use and ease the burden of toxicity on the environment:
Nanotechnology improves the efficiency of fuel production from petroleum feedstocks through better catalysis. It also helps reduce fuel consumption in vehicles and power plants through more efficient combustion and reduced friction.
The disadvantages of nanotechnology:
Even if we can cite plausible results in nanotechnology, there are still some limitations in nanotechnology. The dangers of nanotechnology are divided into different aspects, including material, environmental and physical. The introduction of nanoparticles into society invades, for example, social uses, nano-objects like chips can, for example, integrate applications that the user does not desire. In medicine, it may be that the side effects of nanoscience are not all mastered. In cosmetics, the use of nanotechnology products can also present great dangers.